Packaging, storage and transportation of the hotte

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Packaging, storage and transportation of green food products (I)

section I the separation of new information industry of green food from new energy, biomedicine, electronic information, construction, transportation and other industries is becoming more and more careful. Quality control of product processing process

I. green food processing enterprises

(I) requirements for factory sites and workshops of green food processing enterprises

1. New construction, expansion When choosing the factory (site) location of the reconstructed food enterprise, in addition to complying with the regional planning of the whole specification, attention should also be paid to:

(1) prevent environmental pollution to processing and production. Some biological or chemical pollutants in food often come from air or insect borne transmission. Therefore, new, expanded and reconstructed green food enterprises should consider whether there are pollution sources in the surrounding environment when choosing the plant (site). It is generally required that the plant site should be far away from the heavy industrial zone. When selecting the site of the heavy industrial zone, m shelterbelt should be set according to the pollution range. In the site selection of residential areas, there shall be no workplaces discharging dust and poison, exposed garbage dumps, pits or open toilets within 25m, and no dung yards and infectious disease hospitals within 500m. In addition to the regulations on the distance, the plant site should also be selected in the upwind direction of the pollution source according to the perennial dominant wind direction

(2) prevent the pollution of enterprise processing and production to the environment and residential areas. The sewage and sewage discharged by some food enterprises may bring pathogenic bacteria or chemical pollution, polluting residential areas. Therefore, slaughterhouses, poultry processing plants and other units are generally far away from residential areas. The separation distance can be implemented according to the nature and scale of the enterprise and the provisions of the hygienic standards for the design of industrial enterprises, preferably more than 1km. It should be located in the downwind direction of the dominant wind direction in the residential area and the downstream of the drinking water source, and should be equipped with a "three wastes" purification and treatment device

(3) geographical conditions of enterprise production site selection. There are the following points:

① the terrain is high and dry. In order to prevent groundwater from soaking the building wall foundation and facilitate wastewater discharge, the plant site should be located in an area with high terrain and a certain slope

② abundant water resources and good water quality. Food processing enterprises need a large amount of production water, and the construction of factories must consider the water quality and water supply. The water used for washing containers and equipment in the production of green food must meet the national drinking water standards. Enterprises using self provided water sources need to conduct a comprehensive inspection and analysis of the water quality and quantity of groundwater in high and low water periods to prove that they can meet the production needs before they can locate

③ clean soil and green environment. When the clean soil is polluted by organic matter, it can be made harmless and inorganic by virtue of the action of bacteria and oxygen in the air

enterprises improve the microclimate, beautify the environment, reduce dust and noise through greening. Complete greening is a natural barrier to prevent pollution, so the plant site of enterprises should choose a place with clean soil and suitable for greening

④ convenient transportation. In order to facilitate the transportation of food raw materials, auxiliary materials and food products, processing enterprises should be built in places with convenient transportation but a certain distance from the highway to avoid pollution caused by dust

2. Cleaner production of enterprises

cleaner production is a production mode with the greatest social and economic benefits, which requires the rational use of natural resources in the production process and expected consumption of products, minimizes the harm to human beings and the environment, and fully meets people's needs; It is to continuously apply the overall pollution prevention strategy to the whole production process, improve the comprehensive utilization rate of resources, increase ecological efficiency, reduce pollutant emissions, and reduce the harm to the environment and human beings through continuous improvement of management and technological progress; For the production process, the requirements of cleaner production include saving raw materials and energy, eliminating toxic raw materials, and reducing the quantity and toxicity of all emissions and wastes before they leave the production process; For products, the cleaner production strategy aims to reduce the impact of products on human beings and the environment in the whole production cycle (including the refining of raw materials to the final disposal of products); For services, cleaner production requires that environmental factors be incorporated into the design and services provided. Cleaner production does not include end-of-life treatment technologies, such as air pollution control, wastewater treatment, solid waste incineration or landfill, which can be achieved through the application of specialized technology, the improvement of process technology and the change of management attitude

the United Nations Environment Programme and the environmental planning center integrate various statements and adopt the term "cleaner production" to represent a broad way of pollution prevention and control from raw materials, production processes to the whole process of product use. It is defined as: cleaner production refers to the continuous application of the environmental strategy of comprehensive prevention to the production process and products, so as to reduce the risk to human beings and the environment

China pointed out in the "China Agenda 21" that cleaner production refers to practical production methods and measures that can not only meet people's needs, but also make rational use of natural resources and energy and protect the environment. Its essence is the planning and management of human production activities with the least material and energy consumption, reducing, resourceful and harmless waste, or eliminating it in the production process

In short, cleaner production is the need of the development of the times, a general trend of world industrial development, and a way relative to the extensive traditional industrial production mode. To sum up, low consumption, low pollution and high output are the basic mode of food industry production in the 21st century to realize the unity of economic benefits, social benefits and environmental benefits

it can be seen that green food production enterprises must first meet the requirements of cleaner production to ensure that the product process and product production achieve a clean waste free process while obtaining the maximum economic benefits, so as to ensure product quality

3. Hygienic requirements for architectural design

(1) workshop composition and layout. Food enterprises need to have food raw material processing, processing, packaging, storage places and supporting auxiliary rooms suitable for the variety and quantity of products, such as boiler room, laboratory, container washing room, office and living room (canteen, dressing room, toilet), etc

according to the production process sequence, the buildings of each part of the plant should maintain continuity from raw materials, semi-finished products to finished products, so as to avoid cross contamination of raw materials and finished products, clean food and dirt. The boiler room should be built in the downwind direction of the production workshop, and the toilet should be flush type and away from the production workshop

(2) sanitary equipment. The configuration of food workshop is divided into vertical configuration and horizontal configuration. The vertical type is configured from top to bottom according to the production process, which can avoid cross contamination. The horizontal configuration has good ventilation and lighting, and it is convenient for transportation, but it needs to add sanitary technical equipment. The food workshop must have the following sanitary equipment:

① ventilation equipment. Ventilation can be divided into natural ventilation and mechanical ventilation. However, sufficient ventilation should be ensured to drive away productive steam, lampblack and carbon dioxide exhaled by the human body, so as to ensure fresh air

② lighting equipment. It is divided into natural lighting and artificial lighting. Natural lighting requires that the ratio of lighting doors and windows to the ground is 1:5. The artificial lighting should have sufficient illumination, generally 501x, and the illumination of the inspection console should reach 3001x

③ dust, fly and rat prevention equipment. Food must be made in the workshop, and raw materials and finished products must be covered. The production workshop needs to be equipped with screen doors and windows. Wind curtains or fly proof roads can be arranged at the frequent entrances and exits of goods. Fly traps or fly traps can be set outside the workshop. The doors and windows of the workshop should be tight

④ sanitary passing equipment. China's "Hygienic standard for the design of industrial enterprises" stipulates that industrial enterprises should set up production health rooms, and employees should enter the production workshop after completing personal hygiene treatment in the production health room before going to work. The production health room can be set at 0.3 ~ 0.4m2 per person, and there are changing cabinets and toilets inside. After the employees wear work clothes, hats, masks and work shoes, the first person washes his hands in the disinfection room, washes his hands with soapy water in the double row multiple pedal tap hand washing troughs, and soaks and disinfects in the tank end disinfection basin; In cold drink, canned food and dairy products workshops, disinfection pools 10cm below the ground, 1m wide and 2m long should also be set at the population of the workshop

⑤ washing and disinfection equipment for tools and containers. Green food enterprises must have a washing and disinfection room for tools and containers suitable for the number and variety of products, which is to ensure high precision and strong data processing capacity of food hygiene; Quality is an important link. There should be equipment for soaking, brushing, washing and disinfection in the disinfection room, and there should be enough storage rooms for disinfected tools and containers. It is strictly prohibited to store them in the open air

⑥ sewage, garbage and waste discharge and treatment equipment. Food enterprises use a lot of water for production and living, and there are many kinds of organic wastes. Sewage and waste treatment equipment should be considered in architectural design. In order to prevent sewage from overflowing, the diameter of the sewer pipe should be greater than 10cm, and the auxiliary pipe should have a slope. For boiling water with high grease content, the pipe diameter should be thicker, and an oil removal device should be installed

(3) ground, wall, ceiling structure

① ground. It shall be paved with waterproof, heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant materials. And have a degree for drainage. Drainage ditches shall be set on the ground. Fixed slope

② wall. It should be covered with a layer of smooth, light colored, impermeable and non absorbent materials. White tiles or wall skirts of almost blank materials in most places should be laid on the parts 2m below the ground. The junction between the four walls of the production workshop and the roof should be curved to prevent fouling and facilitate cleaning

③ canopy. The ceiling of the food workshop should be kept dry, smooth and clean. According to the statistics of the International Copper Association, the ceiling of the milk crystal and beverage workshop should be made of pollution-free, non-toxic and environmental friendly materials in a "herringbone" shape to prevent water vapor from dripping on the products and being polluted

4. Green food and ordinary food are processed and stored separately

green food processing enterprises produce. If there are both green food and non green food, the two must be strictly distinguished in the process of production and storage. For example, special workshops and special production lines are used to produce and process green food products, and warehouses and transport vehicles must also be used for special purposes. In short, there must be a strict distinction between green food and non green food, which cannot be confused. Even if there is no special production line, the equipment must be strictly cleaned before the production line produces green food to avoid possible pollution

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